Apurímac: Anemia se reduce, pero aún afecta a casi la mitad de los menores de 3 años

Informe IPE – Diario Chaski (Apurímac)

Según las últimas cifras de la Encuesta Demográfica y de Salud Familiar (ENDES), la prevalencia de anemia en niños entre 6 a 35 meses en Apurímac

presentó una notable reducción de 5.3 puntos porcentuales al pasar de 53.2% en 2018 a 47.9% en 2019. Sin embargo, este decrecimiento no ha sido suficiente pues aún se ubica por encima del promedio nacional (40.1%). En ese sentido, y dado el escenario incierto por el COVID-19, es importante analizar las características de la anemia en la región.

Entendiendo a la anemia
La anemia es el déficit de hemoglobina en la sangre causado principalmente por una inadecuada ingesta de micronutrientes como el hierro (OMS 2017). A nivel nacional, esta ha mostrado una reducción de 43.5% en 2018 a 40.1% en 2019, logrando que alrededor de 43 mil niños dejen esta condición.

A pesar de la reducción de la anemia en niños, Apurímac se posiciona como la novena región con mayor nivel de anemia a nivel nacional. Por su lado, al analizar regiones limítrofes se observa grandes diferencias. Mientras que Cuzco, segunda región con mayor tasa, la prevalencia de anemia alcanza el 57.4%; en Arequipa, cuarta región con menor nivel, el porcentaje es de solo 33.9%. En contraste, Ayacucho presenta un porcentaje de 45.0%, un nivel muy cercano al de Apurímac.

Brechas asociadas a la prevalencia de anemia
Los resultados de la Endes 2019 muestran que los niños que viven en mayores condiciones de vulnerabilidad presentan mayores tasas de anemia. Así, para el 20% de las familias con mayores ingresos, la tasa de anemia en menores de 3 años es de 24%. En tanto, entre el 20% que menos gana, la proporción más que se duplica y alcanza el 51%. Asimismo, la tasa de anemia entre los niños que viven en zonas rurales es de 49%, mientras que el porcentaje en las zonas urbanas es de 36.7%.

No obstante, también se presentan diferencias dentro de un mismo hogar: el porcentaje de anemia aumenta a medida que lo hace el orden de nacimiento del niño. Así, para los niños primogénitos, el porcentaje de anemia es de 37.8%, mientras que, para los niños en sexto orden de nacimiento a más, el porcentaje asciende a 52.5%. Al respecto, según un estudio de Fernández-Oliva (2015), el nivel de anemia de un niño se ve afectado de manera significativa por el orden en el que nació.

Efectos sobre desarrollo económico
La prevalencia de anemia en el país es preocupante debido a sus efectos en el desarrollo de los niños en el largo plazo. Los niños que presentan anemia en sus primeros años de vida suelen presentar un menor desarrollo cognitivo, lo que, a la vez, se relaciona con un menor nivel educativo alcanzado. Asimismo, el menor acceso a educación afectaría la productividad y con ello, el crecimiento económico del país. Al respecto, la investigadora Lorena Alcázar, de Grade, encuentra que la prevalencia de anemia, debido a sus diversos efectos, genera un costo a la sociedad equivalente al 0.6% del PBI, es decir, casi 3 mil millones de soles.

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