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Áncash: solo el 16.1% de ninis ancashinos cuenta con estudios superiores y un 22.8% no ha culminado la secundaria

16 de agosto de 2021

Informe IPE – Diario de Chimbote (Áncash)

Durante su discurso presidencial, Pedro Castillo mencionó que aquellos jóvenes que no estudian ni trabajan, denominados “ninis”, deberán acudir al servicio militar.

Diversos especialistas han criticado la propuesta, señalando que, en su lugar, se requiere mejorar el acceso a educación y empleos de calidad para beneficiar a este grupo de jóvenes. En ese contexto, cobra relevancia analizar la situación de los jóvenes ninis en Áncash, y cómo se vieron afectados durante la pandemia.

Características de los ninis

De acuerdo con la Encuesta Nacional de Hogares del INEI, entre el 2011 y 2019 alrededor del 20.8% de peruanos de 15 a 29 años se encontraba sin estudiar ni trabajar, equivalente a un promedio de 1.6 millones de jóvenes ninis. Por su parte, en Áncash la proporción de ninis ha sido ligeramente menor (18.5%) en ese periodo de años, lo que representa un promedio de 52,000 ninis en la región.

No obstante, a raíz de la pandemia muchos peruanos perdieron su empleo y abandonaron sus estudios durante el 2020. Ello ocasionó que más de 1 millón de jóvenes se unieran a la categoría de ninis a nivel nacional, con lo que el porcentaje de jóvenes sin empleo ni asistencia escolar ascendió a 32.2%. En tanto, en Áncash el número de ninis aumentó de 50,364 en 2019 a 88,884 en 2020, alcanzando el 30.4% del total de jóvenes ancashinos.

El incremento de jóvenes ninis de la región se explica principalmente por el mayor número de ninis en las zonas urbanas. Así, 4 de cada 10 jóvenes que habita que estas áreas no trabajan ni estudian. Además, los ninis son en su mayoría mujeres (57.2% del total de ninis) y, por lo general, poseen un nivel de educación básico (61.1%). En cambio, solo el 16.1% de ninis ancashinos cuenta con estudios superiores y un 22.8% no ha culminado la secundaria.

Según situación económica, los jóvenes más afectados durante el 2020 fueron aquellos que pertenecen los hogares más pobres. El número de ninis que se encuentran en los dos quintiles de menores ingresos casi se duplicó (+96.1%), mientras que los jóvenes ninis del resto de hogares aumentaron en 64.8%.

Impacto en productividad

La existencia de ninis en el país representa una importante fuente de capital humano que no se aprovecha. Según un estudio del Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID), en Latinoamérica y El Caribe, la inclusión de los ninis a la fuerza laboral podría aportar alrededor de 5% en el PBI. Por ello, es importante formular políticas que apunten a atender las necesidades que enfrenta este grupo de la población.

Al respecto, otro informe del BID encontró que los jóvenes en el Perú enfrentan dificultades cognitivas para acceder a una educación postsecundaria y a empleos adecuados. Por lo tanto, el estudio señala la necesidad de mejorar la calidad de la educación, sobre todo en los primeros años escolares, así como otros tipos de capacitaciones laborales para permitir el acceso de los jóvenes a trabajos dignos que mejoren su situación económica.

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