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Huánuco: el impacto de la pandemia ocasionó un retroceso en la pobreza hasta niveles del 2013

Informe IPE – Ahora (Huánuco)

Según los datos del Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática (INEI), la pobreza en Huánuco aumentó fuertemente al pasar de 29.4% en el 2019 a 42.6% en el 2020, lo que ha generado que la región retroceda a niveles del 2013 en este indicador.

Este incremento no solamente ubica a la región por encima del promedio nacional, sino que la posiciona como la cuarta región con el mayor nivel de pobreza de Perú.

Evolución 2004-2019

Entre los años 2004 y 2019, la tasa de pobreza de la región Huánuco se redujo significativamente al pasar de 85% a 29%. A pesar de este avance, el nivel de pobreza de Huánuco en 2019 era mayor que el de regiones vecinas como Áncash (18%) y San Martín (25%), y que el promedio nacional (20%).

Por otro lado, el nivel de pobreza difiere entre el ámbito urbano y rural. En el área urbana, la pobreza se redujo de 72% en 2004 a 18% en 2019, mientras que, en el área rural, pasaron de 92% a 37% en el mismo periodo. Así, en 2019, la pobreza rural en Huánuco era más que el doble que la pobreza urbana, evidenciando notables brechas en el desarrollo entre estas dos áreas.

Impacto de la COVID-19

En 2020, en el contexto de la pandemia por COVID-19, la pobreza en Huánuco se incrementó en 13 puntos porcentuales, alcanzando el 43%. Esto representa un retroceso de siete años en el nivel de pobreza en la región. Destaca que, a diferencia de la tendencia nacional, este incremento fue ligeramente mayor en el ámbito rural (de 37% a 52%) que en el ámbito urbano (de 18% a 29%). Asimismo, el nivel de pobreza extrema en la región presentó un mayor incremento en el área rural (de 5.9% a 16.4%) que en el ámbito urbano (de 0.2% a 5.8%).

Por otro lado, el nivel de empleo informal aumentó en Huánuco, al pasar de 86.6% en 2019 a 88.2% en 2020, evidenciando un deterioro del mercado laboral. Al respecto, se observa una clara relación entre pobreza e informalidad. En 2020, el 98.5% de personas pobres se desarrollan laboralmente en la informalidad, mientras que esta cifra es de 81.9% para personas no pobres.

Salud y educación

Encontrarse en situación de pobreza está relacionado con un menor acceso a servicios de salud y educación, lo cual puede contribuir a la persistencia de la pobreza en el tiempo y para las futuras generaciones. Al respecto, los datos de la última Encuesta Nacional de Hogares (ENAHO) muestran que el 60% de los habitantes de Huánuco que sufrieron algún malestar, enfermedad o accidente en 2020 no se atendieron. Este porcentaje fue mayor en las personas pobres (71%) en comparación con las no pobres (54%).

Finalmente, respecto al nivel educativo máximo alcanzado por los habitantes de Huánuco, se encuentran diferencias entre personas pobres y no pobres. El 59% de personas pobres ha alcanzado, como máximo, el nivel de educación primaria o un nivel menor, mientras que esta cifra es de 43% en personas no pobres. En la misma línea, solo el 8% de personas pobres cuentan con educación superior, mientras que, en personas no pobres, la cifra es de 29%.

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