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Pasco: la producción minera no recupera sus niveles prepandemia

Informe IPE – Diario Ahora (Pasco)

La minería ejerce un rol importante en el crecimiento del país debido a que contribuye a la generación de empleo,

tanto directo como indirecto, y de ingresos fiscales para los gobiernos regionales y locales del país. No obstante, en el 2021, la producción minera de Pasco aún no ha recuperado los niveles alcanzados antes del inicio de la pandemia.

Importancia de la minería en Pasco

En los últimos años, la minería ha sido un factor clave en la dinámica del crecimiento de Pasco al representar más de la mitad de la producción total de la región. Asimismo, gran parte de las exportaciones pasqueñas son productos mineros como la plata, cobre y plomo. Así, el 57.4% del total de envíos al extranjero de la región provienen de la minería tradicional.

De la misma manera, la actividad minera, a pesar de no haberse recuperado en su totalidad, tuvo un impacto positivo en el mercado laboral pasqueño. Según el Ministerio de Energía y Minas (Minem), en diciembre del 2021, el sector minero generó más de 15 mil puestos de trabajo en la región, lo cual representa un aumento de 28.8% del empleo directo registrado en el mismo mes del 2019 (12 mil puestos de trabajo).

Sin embargo, los gobiernos subnacionales de Pasco se vieron afectados por la contracción de la minería en la región tras la crisis sanitaria, debido a que se redujeron significativamente los ingresos fiscales provenientes de la minería.  En el 2021, se registró un monto total de S/48 millones en transferencias de canon y regalías mineras, lo cual representa una reducción de 28.3% de los recursos recibidos de la minería en el 2019.

Producción de minerales

En abril del 2020, hubo un cese de la extracción de los principales productos de la canasta minera en la región. No obstante, en junio del mismo año, la actividad minera reanudó sus operaciones y mantuvo una producción constante que prevaleció a lo largo del 2021. Por ello, a nivel nacional, Pasco se mantuvo como una de las regiones líderes en la producción de plomo, zinc y plata, además de participar en el mercado del cobre.

No obstante, según el Banco Central de Reserva del Perú (BCRP), la producción de cobre, zinc y plomo aún sigue sin superar sus niveles prepandemia. En noviembre del 2021, dichos minerales tuvieron una caída de 32.5%, en comparación al mismo mes del 2019.

Riesgos para el sector

Uno de los principales riesgos para la continuidad de la actividad minera son los conflictos sociales. Al cierre del 2021, la mayoría de los conflictos sociales activos en Pasco estuvieron relacionados a las operaciones mineras de la región. Por ello, resulta importante promover el diálogo entre las partes involucradas para permitir la dinamización del sector. Asimismo, es importante resaltar que las inversiones mineras se redujeron en 43.8% durante el 2020 en comparación al 2019 y, en el 2021, se mantuvieron 0.4% por debajo de los niveles prepandemia, por lo que se requiere establecer mejores condiciones para la inversión privada en la región.

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