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Apurímac: pobreza regresa a niveles de hace 7 años

Informe IPE – Chaski (Apurímac)

Según los datos del Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática (INEI), la pobreza a nivel nacional se incrementó de 20.2% en 2019 a 30.1% en 2020

, producto de las restricciones a las actividades económicas en el contexto de la pandemia. La pobreza en Apurímac, por su parte, se incrementó de 29.1% a 35.5% en el mismo periodo, lo que representa un retroceso de siete años en este indicador. Con ello, más de 32 mil apurimeños habrían pasado a vivir en condiciones de pobreza durante el 2020.

Evolución 2004-2019

Entre el periodo 2004-2019, la pobreza nacional mostró una significativa disminución al pasar de 59% a 20%. A nivel regional, Apurímac registra una mayor reducción en este indicador, que descendió 70% a 29% en el mismo periodo. Pese a estos avances, en 2019 el nivel de pobreza de la región era mayor que el promedio nacional y que el de sus regiones vecinas como Cusco (23%) o Arequipa (6%), aunque menor que en Puno (35%).

Por otro lado, se registran notables diferencias entre el nivel de pobreza urbana y rural. En las zonas urbanas de Apurímac, la pobreza se redujo de 40% en 2004 a 20% en 2019, mientras que, en las zonas rurales, esta pasó de 84% a 36% en el mismo periodo. Así, la pobreza rural en la región fue significativamente mayor que la pobreza urbana, lo que evidencia notables brechas en el desarrollo entre estas dos áreas.

Impacto de la COVID-19

En el contexto de la pandemia por COVID-19, durante el 2020 la pobreza en Apurímac se incrementó de 29% a 36%. Este incremento fue mayor en el ámbito urbano (de 20% a 28%) que en el rural (de 36% a 41%). Ello respondería a que el sector agropecuario -principal actividad económica de las áreas rurales- se mantuvo activo durante los meses de confinamiento.

Educación, salud y entorno laboral

Estar en situación de pobreza se relaciona con un menor acceso a servicios de salud y educación, lo cual puede generar un estado de pobreza persistente en el tiempo o una trampa de pobreza. En Apurímac, en 2020, casi la mitad de la población no pobre (49%) culminó la educación básica regular, mientras que este porcentaje se reduce a 41% en la población pobre. Asimismo, el 40% de la población no pobre que sufrió una enfermedad o malestar en 2020 no recibió ningún tipo de atención, mientras que esta cifra asciende a más de la mitad (56%) para la población en situación de pobreza.

Finalmente, existe una clara relación entre los niveles de pobreza y las condiciones laborales. Si bien gran parte de la población de la región se empleó en la informalidad en el 2020 (89%), este indicador era incluso mayor para la población pobre (97%). Por su parte, la informalidad entre la población no pobre ascendió a 85%. Al respecto, el Banco Mundial señala que acceder a un empleo de calidad y mejores salarios ha sido fundamental para la disminución de la pobreza mundial en los últimos años.

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